Ammonia and Water Reactions
Ammonia (NH3+) is a colorless gas with a strong pungent odor. When mixed with water (H2O), Ammonia will form a weak base. The term Ammonia refers to two chemical species which are in equilibrium in water. As the diagram represents, a phenolphthalein alcohol solution is used as an indicator in acid-base titrations. For this application, it turns colorless in acidic solutions and pink in basic solutions. The toxicity of ammonia is primarily attributable to the un-ionized form (NH3), as opposed to the ionized form (NH4+). In general, more NH3 and greater toxicity exist at higher pH. When dissolved in water, normal ammonia reacts to form an ionized species called ammonium (NH4+).
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