A sorting algorithm is used to rearrange a given array or list elements according to a comparison operator on the elements. The comparison operator is used to decide the new order of elements in the respective data structure. The sorting algorithm diagram has several elements, like 5, 3, 38, 2, 56, and 11. The sorted array would be 2, 45, 11, 12, and 56. Given an array of n elements, where each element is at most k away from its target position, devise an algorithm that sorts in 0(n log k) time. The process begins by assigning values to i and increasing the loop where we increase j by i+1.