Concept Map of Human Sexuality
Human sexuality Puberty Physiology of menstrual cycle Reproductive hormone Boy Girl Increase in weight Growth of testes Growth of facial, axillary, and pubic hair Voice changes Penile growth Increase in height Spermatogenesis (production of sperm) Growth spurt Increase in the transverse diameter of the pelvis Breast development Growth of pubic hair Onset of menstruation Growth of axillary hair Vaginal secretions Puberty is the time in a person's life when secondary sex develops. Hormones released by the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary glands are typically responsible for these alterations. Girls start puberty at an average age of 11, while boys start at an average age of 12. But because everyone is different, don't be concerned if your child hits puberty sooner or later their peers. Puberty can start at any age between 8 and 14, and it's perfectly natural. It might take up to four years to complete the procedure. Male Female Follicle-stimulating hormone (FHS) Luteinizing hormone (LH) Testosterone Effects of Testosterones Increases muscle mass and strength Promotes growth of long bones Increases basal metabolic rate Enhances production of red blood cells Produces enlargement of vocal cords Affects the distribution of body hair Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) follicle-stimulating hormone (FHS) Leutenizing hormone Estrogen Progesterone After ovulation, progesterone prepares the endometrium for the possibility of pregnancy. It causes the lining to thicken in preparation for a fertilized egg. It also prevents the uterus's muscular spasms from causing the body to reject an egg. Menarche, or the start of menstruation, occurs between the ages of 9 and 17 (average of 12.4 years). Anovulatory cycles are common in the early stages of pregnancy. Within 6 to 2 years following menarche, regular cycles are generally formed. The flow (menses) occurs every 28 days on average, with a range of 23-35 days. The blood loss ranges from 30 to 80 mL and lasts 4 to 6 days (ranges 2-9 days). Heavy bleeding is defined as saturating a pad or tampon in less than 1 hour. Blood, mucus, and endomentrial cells make up menstrual blood, which is dark red. Menstrual cycle Uterine Changes Relationship Ovarian changes Relationship Preovulatory Phase/Follicular Phase Hypothalamus releases gonadotropin- releasing hormone through the portal system to the anterior pituitary system Secretion of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) by anterior lobe of the pituitary gland stimulates growth of follicles. Estrogen produced by the follicle stimulates increased secretions of lutenizing hormone (LH) by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland. The follicle ruptures and releases an ovum into the peritoneal cavity Luteal Phase Begins with ovulation. Body temperature decreases and then increases by 0.5oF to 1oF around the time of ovulation. Corpus luteum is formed from follicle cells that remain in the ovary after ovulation. Corpus luteum secretes estrogen and progesterone during remaining 14 days of the cycle. Corpus luteum degenerates (corpus albicans) if the ovum is not fertilized, and secretion of estrogen and progesterone declines Decline of estrogen and progesterone stimulates the anterior pituitary to secret more FSH and LH, initiating a new reproductive cycle. Menstrual Phase Secretory Phase Ischemic Phase Consists of 4 to 6 days of bleeding as the endometrium breaks down because of the decreased levels of estrogen and progesterone. The level of FSH increases, enabling the beginning of the cycle Lasts about 9 days. Estrogen stimulates proliferation and growth of the endometrium. • A estrogen increases, it suppresses secretion of FSH and increases secretion of LH. • Secretion of LH stimulates ovulation and development of the corpus luteum Ovulation occurs between days 12 and 16. • Estrogen level is high, and progesterone level is low Lasts about 12 days and follows ovulation. This phase is initiated in response to the increase in LH level. The graafian follicle is replaced by corpus luteum Progesterone prepares the endometrium for pregnancy if a fertilized ovum is implanted Corpus luteum degenerates (corpus albicans) if the ovum is not fertilized, and secretion of estrogen and progesterone declines Corpus luteum degenerates (corpus albicans) if the ovum is not fertilized, and secretion of estrogen and progesterone declines Blood supply to the endometrium decreases. Without progesterone and estrogen, the endometrium will begin to slough off initiating the menstrual phase.
publish time: 2021-09-14
This is a concept map about human sexuality. Gender and sexuality are fundamentally essential forces that affect every part of our lives: our gender and sex help us understand our bodies, brains, and selves. Our medical, legal, educational, and political institutions are all organized around legal definitions and societal expectations regarding women and men's sex and reproduction.
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