This rooted bacteria phylogenetic tree is required to understand early evolution, but its position is disputed. We model the evolution of 11,272 gene families to determine the root, extent of horizontal gene transfer (HGT), and nature of the last bacterial common ancestor (LBCA). Our findings place LBCA as a free-living flagellated, rod-shaped, double-membraned organism between the major Terra Bacteria and Gracilicutes. Our analyses reject a basal placement of the Candidate Phyla Radiation, which instead branches sister to Chloroflexota within Terrabacteria, as shown in this rooted bacteria phylogenetic tree diagram. Download EdrawMax and create useful phylogenetic trees today.